Provinsalia Golf Community
Specific Plan

Submitted to the City of Clearlake
by Lake County Resort Partners, LLC

March 23, 2005

 

Summary prepared by Victoria Brandon. Items in bold red represent commentary, and are not contained in the Specific Plan itself. The Specific Plan in its entirety (91 pages) is available for study at the Clearlake City Hall and at the branches of the Lake County Library.

Chapter 1: Executive Summary

The Provinsalia property is designated a "Resource Protection Area and Housing Standards" in the General Plan, which "allows for development of land with this designation to be considered olnly when it can be demonstrated that sound site planning and engineering will properly address hatural hazards and respect environmental resources. The Specific Plan was produced in order to meet those conditions." Note that the present zoning is actually very restrictive, acknowledging that particular difficulties to development exist on this site.

The site consists of "292.2 acres of land . . . bounded to the east by the city limits, to the south by Cache Creek, to the north by large parcels of land and ranch houses, and to the west by other large parcels of land and scattered residential development." This description is quite misleading, since the developers actually own more than 500 acres, extending into unincorporated parts of Lake County to the east and (across the creek) to the south. It "contains a wide variety of landforms" including "a well-developed system of natural drainage channels that flow into Cache Creek" as well as the creek and its wetlands, "stands of heritage oak trees" and "cultural resources".

It is proposed to construct 600 single family houses (maximum), 120 multi-family units, and a nine hole golf course. Residential component will cover 135 acres (46.2 percent of the total). 80 acres for the golf course (27.4 percent), 77.2 acres for public open space. Some of the 77.2 open space acres will also be used for infrastructure -- water storage, propane tanks, etc

 

Chapter 2: Introduction

1. Plan purpose

To provide all interested parties "with a combination of descriptive information, dard data, graphics, policies, and regulation that define the context, scope and character of the proposal" with a high level of detail. The information defines the Project which is the subject of the EIR under CEQA.

2. Project location.

A 292.2 acre site in the southeastern corner of the City of Clearlake at the end of Dam Rd..

3. Planning Area Information and Environmental Setting

"Direct access to the Project site is provided by Dam Road . . ." Dam Road is narrow and far from straight: entirely inadequate as access to a community of any size. Some of the terrain is nearly flat, but there are slopes of up to 40% in the eastern portion; the southern boundary runs for approximately 6,000 feet along Cache Creek "and its associated wetlands and wildlife habitat areas, and stands of heritage oak trees occupy portions of the site." There is a "highly functional natural drainage system" into the creek. The nature of the terrain makes drainage into the creek -- including runoff from roads and from the golf course -- inevitable. Three archeological sites are known to exist within the property: two will not be disturbed, but the third is within the area designated for multi-family housing. "Known to exist" only means that no others have yet been discovered. Since the area was quite thickly inhabited by indigenous people it seems quite probable that additional cultural resources will be discovered during construction, and quite possibly human remains as well. Means should be established to identify any sites that may be disturbed, to avoid them if possible, and to follow established mitgation procedures if not.

Both sides of Dam Road to the west are "occupied by older residences constructed on small lots"; within the site the road terminates at the Cache Creek Dam owned by Yolo Flood Control District. Some of the land across the creek "is occupied by some residences and a mobile home park". All these people will be impacted drastically by this project, especially those living on Dam Road, who can expect to lose their front yards if not their front porches if the road is widened to a reasonable standard.

4. Plan Preparation Process

A. Local Regulatory Context

The Provinsalia property is presently designated a "Resource Protection Area" defined in the 1983 General Plan as "Hillsides, creeks, marshes, wildlife habitats, flood and seismic hazard areas, orchards and vineyards," etc, identified as "valuable as open space". "Division of these lands will be permitted only where it can be demonstrated that site planning and engineering will mitigate natural hazards and respect environmental resources.

RP parcels can only be developed after "detailed study": residential development should be clustered and "the most environmentally sensitive or unique aspects of the site are retained in open space."

5. Application of the Specific Plan

All "development plans, studies and applications necessary for development of the Provinsalia project site will be directly based on this Specific Plan and will implement its policies and standards."

6. Relationship to Clearlake General Plan

The Specific Plan implements General Plan goals by maintaining the rural character of Clearlake; providing in-depth study of environmental and social impacts of the project; attempting to preserve natural features, providing variable densities and housing types; and providing "suburban" amenities such as streets and bikeways. The proposed densities are actually quite uniform, and lots that are on average only slightly larger than the standard 50 by 100 hardly constitute a "rural" setting, especially since it is anticipated that the houses will be noticeably larger than the Clearlake norm.

7. Development Applications to be consistent with the Specific Plan

The Specific Plan will "establish a scientific policy and regulatory framework that directs all aspects of development: therefore permits for minor or major subdivision, development agreements, improvement plans, land clearing or grading, rezoning, tree removal, encroachment, right of way dedication, conservation agreements, building permits, special district formation, and sewerage shall all be subject to the provisions of the SP.

8. CEQA Review

Preparation of an EIR is required by the scope of this project. The City of Clearlake has produced an Initial Study identifying various impacts, and has circulated a Notice of Preparation to various public agencies, with a 30-day period to submit comments: "notice of the NOP will also be circulated to interested private agencies and individuals and adjacent property owners." Have the people living along Dam Road also been noticed? Provinsalia will drastically affect their quality of life. And what about those living on the other side of Cache Creek? The City will then produce a draft EIR, and circulate it for a 45-day review and comment period, and hold public hearings on the Specific Plan, the EIR, and the subdivision maps. The "Specific Plan will be forwarded to the City Council for review and adoption (by ordinance) as it will form an amendment to . . . the Clearlake General Plan." There is oddly misleading language scattered through the Specific Plan implying that approval has already been granted; note that such approval will come (if at all) only at the end of the CEQA process.

Chapter 3: land use plan

1. Introduction

The Provinsalia site is located entirely within the City of Clearlake, on three legal parcels: 010-008-31 (268 acres); 012-040-15 (10.8 acres); 012-040-16 (13.3 acres). As previously mentioned, the developers also own an additional adjoining 218 acres under the jurisdiction of the County of Lake.

"The project side is designated 'Specific Plan' and is zoned 'Specific Plan'" An example of the misleading phrasing mentioned above: at the present time it is zoned "Resource Protection": "Specific Plan" zoning is the object of the developers' application, not existing status.

2. Project Goals and Objectives

Goal 1: to construct a community with full services, recreational opportunities, and a rural atmosphere. A rural atmosphere is hardly consistent with the projected densities.

Objectives: prepare a comprehensive plan, develop the golf course and trail system, and create standards leading to a "quiet and peaceful residential environment." Note that while golf course construction will begin during the first phase of the project, the trail system is left to nearly the end -- when the original developers may or may not be around or in a position to implement it.

Goal 2: to "preserve the existing natural resources of the Provinsalia project site consistent with development."

Objectives: promote design that accommodates natural features, build houses in areas requiring the least disturbance to the site, minimize impacts to wildlife habitat, achieve a net increase in oak woodland acreage, enhance the habitat value of the riparian corridor, protect particularly sensitive areas such as wetlands, preserve trees and open space in block rather than strips. All laudable objectives, but the plan's effectiveness in promoting them is debatable. For one thing a "net increase" in oak woodland acreage created by planting saplings will not provide appreciable habitat for many years, if ever.

Goal 3: to produce a desirable living environment

Objectives: plan efficient roadways of consistent design, provide for maintenance of community facilities including the golf course and clubhouse [to be paid for by special assessment that might not be limited to Provinsalia residents, not by the developers], adopt CC&Rs "providing for community review of home modifications and monitoriing of property maintenance." Some people call this kind of thing petty tyranny.

Goal 4: provide a choice of housing styles and lot sizes,

Objectives: create a range of single-family lot sizes in phases 1-9, [the average lot size is so small that significant diversity is hardly possible] and multifamily residences in phase 10; "specify lot development standards that provide for variety in house size and style, while promoting desirable aesthetic qualities";" allow for a range of building finishes and landscaping options."

Goal 5: provide "functional linkages" with the rest of Clearlake, and "contribute to the social, economic, and cultural base of the community"

Objectives: operate the golf course as a public facility, open the trail system to "all Clearlake residents," and improve the access roads. Does Lake County need another golf course? Are the trails to be restricted to city residents? Will the people living on the access roads regard these changes as improvements?

3. The Provinsalia Project

The 292.2 acre site will contain 600 houses(118 acres), 120 other units (17 acres), a nine-hole golf course (80 acres), and 26.4 acres of dedicated open space. Access will be by Dam Rd and 18th Avenue [by way of Dam Rd], both roads to be improved to "current city standards". Interior roads will be paved, with sidewalks, street lighting, and landscaping.

Power, water, sewer, and propane will be provided through underground conduits. Propane will come from an "on-site distribution sytem fed from 3 30,000 gallon" on-site tanks. Drinking water will be pumped out of Cache Creek and treated on-site. Lake County Special Services district will treat the sewage.

"The centerpiece . . . will be the two-story clubhouse . . .with a pro shop, community room, kitchen, an assembly/dining area together with locker rooms, a deck and ample parking." There will also be an "interpretive center that introduces visitors to the natural amenities of the site, describes indigenous plant and wildlife and its identified cultural resources."

The project will be built in 10 phases, with a subdivision map filed with the city before development begins on each one. The first (most expensive) phase will include the sewer, water treatment plant, propane system, part of the golf course, and the roads for the first batch of houses. Phases 2-9 will mostly be residential, with the golf course, roads, and utilities advancing in concert. The multi-family housing won't be built till phase 10. "The developer is proposing to finance construction of Provinsalia through the formation of a Community Facilities District under the provisions of the Mell Roos Community Facilities Act of 1982." Who is going to actually pay for it?

4. Planned Land Uses

a. Single Family Residential

One driveway per house, to be "maintained in good condition. Only currently licensed vehicles may be parked in a residential driveway and the covering of any vehicle with plastic tarpaulins, sheets, or the like shall be prohibited." !!! Allowable exterior finishes, windows, roof pitch, landscaping styles, patio styles, storage shed sizes are all described.

b. Multi-family Residential

Each structure will contain "two or more separate" single-family units. Rules and regs and design standards similar to the single family sector.

c. Golf Course

The golf course will run along the boundary of much of the development, "and will retain a significant amount of the existing terrain and trees that characterize the project site"

d. Open Space

It is intended "to preserve the functions and values of sensitive plant, wildlife and wetland habitats. Open space land therefore contains wetland buffers and wildlife habitat areas directly associated with Cache Creek. The heavily wooded, eastern portion of the project site also provides valuable habitat. Allowable uses in this designation are limited to: pedestrian and bicycle trails, water intake and collection lines, storage tanks and maintenance roads necessary for the operation of essential community facilities." The designated open space in the wetland areas would be unbuildable under any circumstances; indeed, much of it is under water most of the time. Some of the other open space will apparently be used for infrastructure purposes.

5. Development Considerations and Components

A. Physical constraints

i.. Wildlife Habitat Conservation

The site contains rich wildlife habitat, which it is intended to protect by avoiding development in particularly sensitive areas. To identify these sectors, a biological assessment was conducted by Environmental Sciences Associates, including a wetland delineation report and an oak woodland inventory. The resulting conservation strategy will "protect more than 11 acres of riparian wetlands in the floodplain, just over 0.7 acres of perennial wetlands, about 0.1 acres of seasonal wetland, [these areas are unbuildable anyway] 64 acres of oak woodlands . . . and nearly 2 acres of chaparral. The project will require the relocation of two elderberry bushes which are habitat for the endangered Longhorned Valley Elderberry Beetle." Relocation of bushes and beetles represents entirely inadequate protection for an endangered species.

ii.Wetlands

There are 0.34 acres of seasonal wetlands in the property, perennial wetlands including nearly an acre of "emergent marsh," and nearly 11 acres of riparian wetlands within the floodplain. Aside from Cache Creek [which is controlled by the Clear Lake Dam immediately downstream] the wetlands and fed by 31 seasonal drainages "having an extent of 26,759 linear feet" ie more than five miles. There are approximately 17 acres of open Cache Creek water on the site. A wetland delineation report was prepared, and the plans were redrawn to avoid impact to all the perennial wetlands, and all but 0.112 acres of seasonal wetlands. 5,000 feet of drainage channels will be affected by the installation of culverts.

The remaining wetlands and riparian areas will be designated Open Space, and fenced during construction to protect them. Within these areas no trees will be cut, and no degrading impacts (such as vehicular traffic or placement of heavy equipment) will be allowed. Pesticides will not be used within 100 feet, and fertilizers will not be applied within 100 feet upslope. Chemical discharge into wetlands or storm drains is prohibited. Public access will be allowed only for non-impacting recreation such as bird watching or fishing.

The wetland habitats are under the jurisdiction of the Army Corps of Engineers and the CA Dept of Fish and Games; state and federal regulations require the developers to minimize impacts, and to provide a detailed mitigation and restoration plan when impact is unavoidable. Mitigation of the destruction of the 0.112 acres of seasonal wetland will be mitigated by the restoration of 0.35 acres, alterations to the natural drainage channels will be mitigated within the site as well: "All wetland impacts will mitigate prior to construction that will result in the impacts. The restored wetlands will be monitored annually to ensure they meet or exceed performance standards for functions and values of the impacted wetlands."

iii. Woodlands

The site contains almost 90 acres of blue oak woodland, more than 4 acres of valley oak woodland, and many individual trees: removal of 30 acres of woodland and another 28 individual trees is proposed: altogether, 1540 trees with diameters greater than 4 inches. Another 64 acres of woodland will be preserved.

This is important wildlife habitat, and the plans were redrawn to maximize conservation. A "primary goal was to reduce oak woddland habitat fragmention within the project area. Therefore, the conservation goal was met by protecting the larger contiguous areas of blue and valley oaks on the site. Restoration measures are proposed to mitigate the 30 woodland acres that will be demolished, with the following provisions

Much of this replanting will occur before the destruction that it is intended to mitigate. In the best of circumstances it takes many years before a young woodland can duplicate the habitate value of a mature forest, and circumstances are not always of the best by any means: the survival rate of newly planted trees is quite low. Several years ago several thousand young oaks were set out in the Anderson Marsh State Park, with tree wrap, fencing, etc: none survived. Attempting to establish woodland in grassland or chaparral is particularly problematic, since if the terrain and soil types were suitable for trees they would probably have established themselves there on their own.

iv. Cache Creek Water Quality

It is proposed to "augment the existing natural drainage system to provide for the control of off-site storm water flows to predevelopment levels while providing for enhanced water quality through the provision of on-site detention and/or filtration systems." At present the whole site allows percolation into ground water, greatly reducing runoff into the creek; existing vegetation minimizes sediment in the runoff that does occur. After development a great deal of the site will be covered by impervious roads or structures. Soil disturbance will be inevitable during construction, markedly increasing the amount of soil that is likely to wind up in the creek, at least temporarily. The threat of pesticide and herbicide pollution from the golf course will be permanent.

v.Cultural Resources

An archeologist has been hired to do a reconnaisance of the site, identify sensitive areas, and recommend measures for preservation or mitigation. "Lake County Resort Partners will use the requirements of this study to delineate areas for preservation and incorporate them into the final site design to be adopted by the City." Three specific areas have already been identified, one of them in the proposed multi-family housing sector. Additional artifacts will almost certainly be discovered during construction (if anyone bothers to notice them), possibly additional discrete sites, perhaps even human remains, the discovery of which trigger specific, and very restrictive, procedures. Plans for dealing with these eventualities should be established at the outset, including consultation with local tribal communities.

vi. Grading Design

Land disturbance is to be minimized, and areas with more than 30 percent slope "shall have engineered plans for all construction and grading. These plans shall address roads, uitility corridors, etc. as well as off-site problems, such as erosion caused by construction." A lot of erosion can occur on slopes much gentler than 30 percent.

B. Development Components

i.Residential location.

Each lot will either adjoin the golf course, have a view of the golf course, have a view of Cache Creek, or have a view of the mountains to the east.

ii. Golf Course

Nine holes are the minimum feasible: an 18-hole course "proved impractical given constraints imposed upon the project by topography and environmentally sensitive areas." The only 18-hole course in Lake County (HVL) barely breaks even, the community could hardly support a second. For that matter, why does the area need an additional nine hole course?

iii. Roads

The proposed roads will be paved, with sidewalks and storm drains, allow for underground utilities, and will carry the projected traffic flow. Will adjoining roads and highways outside the development also be able to carry the increased load?

iv. Trails.

A trail system along Cache Creek and in the eastern open space area is planned.

v. Landscaping

"Innovation in planting design and choice of landscape materials is encouraged, with a partiality toward drought tolerant, native, and Mediterranean climate plant species." Goals include enhancing architecture, reflecting the local climate and conserving water, providing a fire-defensible envelope, emphasizing native species, preserving and creating views, being low maintenance, providing aesthetic links, being creative in design, providing shade, and providing seasonal variety.

vi. Public Utilities.

Costs of providing central water and sewage are so high that densities of at least 4 houses per acre are needed for economic viability. (Note that this is only half the density proposed) In the case of Provinsalia, this requirement is reinforced by city policies requiring clustering of residences and "constraints on location of residential lots imposed by site topograpy, the golf course and the presence of environmental resources that must be conserved."

C. Development Standards

i. Single Family Residential

With minor exceptions the minimum lot size is 5000 sq feet, maximum building footprint 50 percent of the lot, maximum impervious surface 75 per cent of the lot, maximum height 35 feet above grade, minimum front setback 20 feet, minimum side setback 5 feet, minimum rear setback 15 feet. In other words,. big houses on tiny lots.

ii. Multi-family residential

Minimum lot size 4,000 sq ft, maximum footprint 80 percent of lot, maximum height 35 feet, maximum impervious area 80 percent of lot, setbacks the same as single family

D. Design Standards.

i. Landscaping Standards

Landscaping plans following the guidelines listed above must be filed with each application for subdivision maps or building permits. At a minimum, one tree will be planted in the front yard of each single-family residence. Lighting will be downcast, and not reach beyond the property line "except street lights." Even leaving individual household lighting aside, all those street lights are going to cause major light pollution, which will dramatically change the living standards of others in the neighborhood.

ii. Residential Style and Design

Designs will vary from one house to another, but the "fundamental design objective for Provinsalia is that the residences proposed are of a size and proportion that compliment rather than affront the lot and neighbornood" A table of roofing, siding, and window material is provided.

iii. Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions

"The provision of the CC&R's will be implemented throough an Architectural Review Committee which will initially be comprised of appointees of the developer." Current CC&R is provided as an appendix to the full plan.

Chapter Four: infrastructure

1. Transportation

Access to the site is by way of Dam Road, which has been designated a "collector road" despite its narrowness. "The portion of Dam Road closest to the project site is characterized by a realtively narrow pavement surface and a 60-ft wide right-of-way. Dam Road right-of-way west of Wilkinson Road is at present 40 ft. in width. Acquisition of additional rights-of-way will be required to produce roadway to engineering standards." What is proposed is a 60ft right of way with each lane consisting of 12 ft paved carriageway, 5 ft gravel shoulder, and 3 ft drainage swale, with a bikepath on the Cache Creek side. Dam Road would be constructed to this standard through the project site, with the pavement ending at the western side of the main open space preserve. Interior circulation roads would be constructed to a similar standard, but maintained by the Provinsalia Community.

Additional access would be by way of 18th Ave, with connections to Dam Rd west of the project site.

The developers have "commissioned a detailed traffic study to infestigate the impact of the Provinsalia develoopment on the existing road system." It hadn't been finished when the Specific Plan was submitted: considering the drastic nature of the impact, this is a major omission.

2. Water Use and Treatment

A. Introduction

Water supply and treatment will be developed on site, not through one of the existing water companies.

B. Water needs

Estimated average daily demand is 245,000 gallons per day, or 275 acre feet per year, but the system must be sized to meet maximum demand, estimated at 490,000 gpd. In addition, the golf course will require 65-70 acre feet annually, with a maximum of 200,000 gpd. Irrigation water will be supplied separately, since it doesn't have to be treated to potable standards.

C. Existing facilities

The project is within the Konocti County Water District sphere of influence, but there are no facilities within a half mile, and KCWD plant is operating near capacity. Significant improvements to the existing plant would be needed if Provinsalia were to connect, including adding 500,000 gpd capacity and constructing nearly a mile of water main to the site.

D. Water supply

Cache Creek water is available from Yolo Flood Control

E. Water treatment

Cache Creek water requires the same treatment as lake water: clarification, filtration, and disinfection; golf course irrigation water will need clarification to prevent clogging. A treatment plant with 500,000 gpd capacity will be constructed.

F. Water storage and distribution

The standard is to store one day's supply, plus two hours fire flow, which works out to 670,000 gallons. Two 390,000 gallon storage tanks will be placed at higher elevation in the north east corner of the site, in the designated open space area. The distribution system will consist of 8-inch and 6-inch mains made of PVC, laid out within the roadway areas.

G. Operation and maintenance

Costs will be covered by user fees: roughly $185 annually per residence to amortise $2.5 million construction costs, plus an average of $55 monthly (varying according to use: houses will be metered) for what is estimated as $40,000 per month operation and maintenance. Note: this structure assumes full occupancy. If not all units are sold. the costs for the rest will increase markedly.

3. Wastewater colllection, treatment and disposal

Provinsalia will tie into the existing Clearlake sewage system operated by the county Special Services division (CLSSD) approx 2,000 feet west of the site near Dam Rd, and after treatment be injected into the Geysers steam field. Estimated flow is 145,000 gpd, with a peak of 507 gpd or 350 gallons a minute. It will be collected by a system of gravity mains and carried to two lift stations and pumped out.

Some lots are sited below the road grade (location of sewer lines): these lots will have septic tanks with pumps, and the effluent pumped out to the sewer system.

Operation and maintenance will be assumed by the CLSSD. It is still unclear whether the sewage treatment plant will need upgrading to meet the added demand

4. Stormwater drainage.

Soils analysis was conducted in 1991 and findings confirmed by another set of borings in March 2005. Findings are on file with the City of Clearlake. There are three waterways within the site, all draining from north to south into Cache Creek, draining 910, 115, and 215 acres respectively. Storm water passing through the site will be carried in storm drains through the residential areas and in open channels through the golf course.

A storm water management plan (prepared by the county and adopted by the city) aims to minimize pollutants entering the lake, and to "mitigate additional runoff from new development caused by the inccrease of impervious surfaces." To meet this objective it is proposed that storm runoff from within the project will be conveyed to retention/percolation basins adjoining the golf course; fertilizers and pesticides will be applied to the golf course during the dry season only; upstream runoff from outside the project will flow across the site as it does now; newly graded areas will be seeded with native grasses, and protected by straw erosion control blankets; and no structures will be built in flood plains.

Both the City and California Water Quality Control Board must approve these mitigation proposals; and since the three drainage channels are designated blueline streams Army Corps of Engineers approval may be necessary as well.

5. Solid waste disposal

A local company will pick up garbage and recyclables; recycling will be promoted as community policy.

6. Energy

Electric service will be provided by PG&E, with all lines underground. The developer will install a central propane system supplied from 3 buried 30,000 gallon tanks.

Energy efficiency will be actively encouraged: houses will be oriented to make solar power feasible, and blocking the solar potential of adjacent houses will be forbidden; large north-facing windows will not be allowed unless triple-glazed; minimizing heat reflection from paved areas will be a landscaping objective; and all houses will have low-flow water fixtures and energy efficient appliances.

7. Other facilities.

Extra costs for schools, police and fire, and libraries has not yet been determined; the developer expects to negotiate with the city and responsible districts to determine offsetting payments.

Chapter Five: Project Implementation

1. Financing.

The project will require the formation of a Community Services District to own and operate the golf course, the internal streets, and the water treatment plant, to be financed by Mello Roos bonds. Who, ulitmately, will pay for this? Not the developers, that's for sure: but will it be the residents of Provinsalia or the residents of Clearlake as a whole?

The project will be developed in ten phases. The first will be the most expensive, since it includes the water treatment plant and the propane farm as well as part of the golf course and the roads and infrastructure needed for the first phase of residential construction. "The remainder of the bonds will be issued incrementally as needed. This financing procedure requjires the use of private funds to complete the construction, and reimbursement of those funds with the bond revenues."

The golf course and club house will be completed, and opened to the public, during Phase 6; the trails and interpretive center will be built during Phase 7; the multi-family housing will be constructed in the final phase. The phasing scheme "assumes that houses will be built on the lots as they become available; leading to orderly development of the entire site." Given the number of phantom subdivisions existing in Lake County, this assumption may be overly optimistic. Total construction time is estimated at three and a half years, with build-out seven or eight years.

2. Project entitlement

A separate application for a subdivision map will be required for each phase of the project, subject to city approval. "Each subdivision map will conform to the design standads provided" in the specific plan, and will be exempt from further CEQA review.

Additional encroachment permit applications will be filed for any activities impinging on public rights of way, and building permits for individual houses (or for groups of houses constructed by a developer) will also be required.

Chapter Six: Economic impacts

"A detailed economic study to determine the viability and financial impacts of this site has been undertaken by Economic and Planning systems of Sacramento" and has been filed with the city. "The study concludes that the Provinsalia project will have a competitive position in the Lake County housing market and will build out in the medium term of eight to ten years. " Somewhat more slowly than the 7-8 year estimate given above. No where is it stated what these lots -- much less individual houses -- are expected to sell for.